Investig Clin Urol.  2021 Jul;62(4):408-415. 10.4111/icu.20210017.

Stratifying risk for multiple, recurrent, and large (≥3 cm) Ta, G1/G2 tumors in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

  • 1Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Seoul Leaders Urology Clinic, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Urology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Urology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea


The current stratification of risk groups regarding recurrence and progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is problematic. We aimed to assess the long-term outcome and risk of multiple, recurrent, and large (≥3 cm) Ta, G1/G2 tumors after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT).
Materials and Methods
We categorized 1,621 patients with NMIBC who underwent TURBT into four risk groups according to the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines as follows: low-risk, intermediate-risk, high-risk, and study group. The overall, cancer-specific, disease recurrence-free, and disease progression-free survival rates were estimated by using the Kaplan–Meier method. Then, the impact of risk group was assessed by using a multivariable Cox regression model.
The study group comprised 52 patients (3.2%) within a mean follow-up of 64.8 months. The disease recurred and progressed in 41 (78.8%) and 7 (13.5%) patients, respectively. Among the four groups, the study group showed the highest risk for 10-year recurrence after TURBT. The disease progression risk in the study group was between that of the intermediate- and high-risk groups. Cancer-specific and all-cause deaths occurred in one and four patients in the study group, respectively. The study group had a higher risk for disease recurrence than did the high-risk group; however, it did not have a higher risk for disease progression than in the high-risk group.
Multiple, recurrent, and large (≥3 cm) Ta, G1/G2 tumors carry a higher risk for disease recurrence, but not progression, than in the EAU high-risk group of NMIBC.


Outcome; Risk assessment; Urinary bladder neoplasms
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