J Korean Med Assoc.  2021 Jun;64(6):394-399. 10.5124/jkma.2021.64.6.394.

Importance of connectedness for the management of embitterment and loneliness in the era of COVID-19

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made ‘untact’ life a new standard (next normal) way of life, minimizing physical contacts among people. Emotional exchanges between people are rapidly being replaced by contact through the Internet, social networks, and over-the-top services.
Current Concepts
People are expressing more stress and anxiety that are caused by fear of infection, and also embitterment due to perceived distrust and injustice is increasing. In the era of COVID-19, it is necessary and important to manage burnout, depression, and anxiety symptoms of medical staff and quarantine personnel. The pandemic and the resulting social changes intensifies loneliness, leading to deterioration in mental and physical health. The World Health Organization has warned that loneliness and social isolation are leading to the exacerbation of physical illness and increased mortality due to suicide and other mental health problems.
Discussion and Conclusion
It is needed to establish a next standard of mental health service such as untact diagnosis and follow-up support system. Government and society should establish a sustainable system even after the COVID-19 crisis, rather than stopgap measures made with people’s sacrifice as collateral.


COVID-19; Depression; Anxiety; Loneliness; Embitterment; 코로나19; 우울; 불안; 외로움; 울분
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