Asian Spine J.  2021 Jun;15(3):283-293. 10.31616/asj.2020.0117.

A Comparison Study of Four Cervical Disk Arthroplasty Devices Using Finite Element Models

Affiliations
  • 1Center for NeuroTrauma Research, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
  • 2School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology (Chennai Campus), Chennai, India

Abstract

Study Design: The study examined and compared four artificial cervical disks using validated finite element models. Purpose: To compare and contrast the biomechanical behavior of four artificial cervical disks by determining the external (range of motion) and internal (facet force and intradiscal pressure) responses following cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) and to elucidate any device design effects on cervical biomechanics. Overview of Literature: Despite CDA’s increasing popularity most studies compare the CDA procedure with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. There is little comparative evaluation of different artificial disks and, therefore, little understanding of how varying disk designs may influence spinal biomechanics.
Methods
A validated C2–T1 finite element model was subjected to flexion-extension. CDAs were simulated at the C5–C6 level with the Secure-C, Mobi-C, Prestige LP, and Prodisc C prosthetic disks. We used a hybrid loading protocol to apply sagittal moments. Normalized motions at the index and adjacent levels, and intradiscal pressures and facet column loads were also obtained.
Results
The ranges of motion at the index level increased after CDA. The Mobi-C prosthesis demonstrated the highest amount of flexion, followed by the Secure-C, Prestige LP, and Prodisc C. The Secure-C demonstrated the highest amount of extension, followed by the Mobi-C, Prodisc C, and Prestige LP. The motion decreased at the rostral and caudal adjacent levels. Facet forces increased at the index level and decreased at the rostral and caudal adjacent levels following CDA. Intradiscal pressures decreased at the adjacent levels for the Mobi-C, Secure-C, and Prodisc C. Conversely, the use of the Prestige LP increased intradiscal pressure at both adjacent levels.
Conclusions
While all artificial disks were useful in restoring the index level motion, the Secure-C and Mobi-C translating abilities allowed for lower intradiscal pressures at the adjacent segments and may be the driving mechanism for minimizing adjacent segment degenerative arthritic changes. The facet joint integrity should also be considered in the clinical decision-making process for CDA selection.

Keyword

Adjacent level motions; Angular kinematics; Total disc replacement; Discectomy; Index level biomechanics; Finite element model
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