Acute Crit Care.  2021 May;36(2):109-117. 10.4266/acc.2020.01095.

Analysis of avoidable cardiopulmonary resuscitation incidents with a part-time rapid response system in place

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea
  • 2Interdepartment of Critical Care Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea
  • 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea

Abstract

Background
Although a rapid response system (RRS) can reduce the incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in general wards, avoidable CPR cases still occur. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and causes of avoidable CPR.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adult patients who received CPR between April 2013 and March 2016 (35 months) at a tertiary teaching hospital where a part-time RRS was introduced in October 2012. Four experts reviewed all of the CPR cases and determined whether each event was avoidable.
Results
A total of 192 CPR cases were identified, and the incidence of CPR was 0.190 per 1,000 patient admissions. Of these, 56 (29.2%) were considered potentially avoidable, with the most common cause being doctor error (n=32, 57.1%), followed by delayed do-not-resuscitate (DNR) placement (n=12, 21.4%) and procedural complications (n=5, 8.9%). The percentage of avoidable CPR was significantly lower in the RRS operating time group than in the RRS non-operating time group (20.7% vs. 35.5%; P=0.026). Among 44 avoidable CPR events (excluding cases related to DNR issues), the rapid response team intervened in only three cases (6.8%), and most of the avoidable CPR cases (65.9%) occurred during the non-operating time.
Conclusions
A significant number of avoidable CPR events occurred with a well-functioning, part-time RRS in place. However, RRS operation does appear to lower the occurrence of avoidable CPR. Thus, it is necessary to extend RRS operation time and modify RRS activation criteria. Moreover, policy and cultural changes are needed prior to implementing a full-time RRS.

Keyword

cardiopulmonary resuscitation; hospital rapid response team; prevention
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