Ann Surg Treat Res.  2021 May;100(5):282-290. 10.4174/astr.2021.100.5.282.

Clinical characteristics of rectal cancer patients with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy: a nationwide population-based cohort study in South Korea

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has been accepted as a standard treatment for stage II–III rectal cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer and effects on overall survival (OS) of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in South Korea.
Methods
Patients who underwent curative resection for rectal cancer from 2014 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed from the database of the National Quality Assessment program in South Korea. Patients were categorized into the upfront surgery group and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy group. We evaluated factors associated with the administration of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and its effects on OS. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was performed to account for baseline differences between subgroups.
Results
A total of 6,141 patients were categorized into the upfront surgery group (n = 4,237) and neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy group (n = 1,904). The neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was more frequently administered to male, midrectal cancer, and younger patients. In the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy group, old age, underweight, and pathologic stage were significant risk factors of OS, and male sex, the level of tumor and clinical stages were not associated with OS. After adjustment, the OS of the neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy group followed the OS of the upfront surgery group of the same pathologic stage.
Conclusion
Male sex and the level of tumor were not related to the OS of rectal cancer patients with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The OS of patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was decided by their pathologic stages regardless of clinical stages.

Keyword

Neoadjuvant therapy; Rectal neoplasms; Survival
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