Gut Liver.  2021 Jan;15(1):77-84. 10.5009/gnl19288.

Long-term Prognosis of Localized Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Rectum

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea.
  • 2Departments of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Departments of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Although localized lymphoid hyperplasia (LLH) of the rectum is occasionally observed, its clinical implications are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the clinical course and significance of LLH of the rectum.
We identified 65 patients diagnosed with LLH of the rectum using a histopathologic examination and who received follow-up endoscopies between January 2009 and June 2015. Patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease, lymphoma, familial adenomatous polyposis, or uncontrolled malignancy and patients who underwent scar biopsy after endoscopic resection or surgery were excluded. Endoscopic findings and clinical courses were analyzed.
During the median follow-up of 31 months (interquartile range, 19 to 40 months), 81.5% (53/65) of LLHs of the rectum were resolved. Clinically significant diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC, n=5) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma (n=1), were diagnosed in 9.2% of patients (6/65). The other six patients showed no significant changes in the lesion (n=3) or a waxing and waning appearance (n=3). According to endoscopic findings, all of the 47 polypoid types showed resolution or waxing and waning patterns. Five of the 11 nodular types (45.5%) developed into UC. One of the seven submucosal tumor (SMT)-like types (14.3%) developed into MALT lymphoma.
LLH of the rectum with persistent symptoms or the endoscopic appearance of the nodular or SMT-like type may lead to clinically significant disease. Risk stratification according to endoscopic findings and careful surveillance are required for these lesions.


Lymphoid hyperplasia; Rectum; Colitis; ulcerative; Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma
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