Korean J Orthod.  2021 Mar;51(2):105-114. 10.4041/kjod.2021.51.2.105.

Relationship between rotational disc displacement of the temporomandibular joint and the dentoskeletal morphology

  • 1Department of Orthodontics, Dankook University Jukjeon Dental Hospital, Yongin, Korea
  • 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea
  • 3Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Korea
  • 4Department of Orthodontics, Seoul National University Dental Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Dental Research Institute and Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rotational disk displacement (DD) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the dentoskeletal morphology.
Women aged > 17 years were included in this study. Each subject had a primary complaint of malocclusion and underwent routine cephalometric examinations. They were divided into five groups according to the findings on sagittal and coronal magnetic resonance images of their TMJs: bilateral normal disk position, bilateral anterior DD with reduction (ADDR), bilateral rotational DD with reduction (RDDR), bilateral anterior DD without reduction (ADDNR), and bilateral rotational DD without reduction (RDDNR). Twenty-three cephalometric variables were analyzed, and the Kruskal–Wallis test was used to evaluate differences in the dentoskeletal morphology among the five groups.
Patients with TMJ DD exhibited a hyperdivergent pattern with a retrognathic mandible, unlike those with a normal disk position. These specific skeletal characteristics were more severe in patients exhibiting DD without reduction than in those with reduction, regardless of the presence of rotational DD. Rotational DD significantly influenced horizontal and vertical skeletal patterns only in the stage of DD with reduction, and the mandible exhibited a more backward position and rotation in patients with RDDR than in those with ADDR. However, there were no significant dentoskeletal differences between ADDNR and RDDNR.
The results of this study suggest that rotational DD of TMJ plays an important role in the dentoskeletal morphology, particularly in patients showing DD with reduction.


Temporomandibular joint; Cephalometrics; Classification; Disk displacement
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