Clin Orthop Surg.  2021 Mar;13(1):37-46. 10.4055/cios20128.

Culture-Expanded Autologous AdiposeDerived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea
  • 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Biostar Stem Cell Research Institute, R Bio Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Background
Outcomes of traditional treatment for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) are not always satisfactory. Hence, cell-supplementation therapy has been attempted to facilitate necrotic-tissue regeneration. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) transplantation is potentially advantageous over bone marrow-derived MSC implantation, but its outcomes for ONFH remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine 2-year radiological and clinical outcomes of culture-expanded autologous ADMSC implantation for ONFH.
Methods
Eighteen hips with necrotic lesions involving ≥ 30% of the femoral head were included. ADMSCs were harvested by liposuction and culture expanded for 3 passages over 3 weeks. With a 6-mm single drilling, ADMSCs were implanted into the necrotic zone. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) at screening and 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months postoperatively. The primary outcome was the change in the size of necrotic area on MRI. Secondary outcomes were changes in clinical scores and radioisotope uptake on SPECT/CT. Conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) was defined as the endpoint.
Results
Preoperatively, the necrotic lesion extent was 63.0% (38.4%–96.7%) of the femoral head. The mean Harris hip score was 89.2, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) score was 5.6, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis index (WOMAC) was 79.4. Three patients underwent THA and 1 patient died in an accident. Finally, 11 patients (14 hips) were available for ≥ 2-year follow-up. At the last follow-up, no surgery-related complications occurred, and 14 of 17 hips (82%) were able to perform daily activities without THA requirement. There was no significant decrease in lesion size between any 2 intervals on MRI.However, widening of high signal intensity bands on T2-weighted images inside the necrotic lesion was observed in 9 of 14 hips (64%); 11 of 14 hips (79%) showed increased vascularity on SPECT/CT at 2 years postoperatively. No significant differences were observed between preoperative and 24-month mean Harris hip score (89.2 vs. 88.6), WOMAC (79.4 vs. 75.7), and UCLA score (5.6 vs. 6.2).
Conclusions
Our outcomes suggest that culture-expanded ADMSC implantation is a viable option for ONFH treatment without adverse events.

Keyword

Osteonecrosis of the femoral head; Stem cell; Core decompression; Lesion size; Magnetic resonance imaging
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