Clin Exp Vaccine Res.  2020 Jul;9(2):102-107. /10.7774/cevr.2020.9.2.102.

Genotype-specific neutralizing antibody titers against Japanese encephalitis virus genotypes 1 and 3 in horses immunized with a genotype 3 vaccine

Affiliations
  • 1Viral Disease Research Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, Korea
  • 2Korea Racing Authority, Gwacheon, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
Japanese encephalitis is one of the most important mosquito-borne and zoonotic diseases in Asia and the Pacific region. Although the dominant Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype has shifted from G3 to G1 in Korea since 1990, a G3 strain (Anyang 300) has been used in vaccines for horses for almost 40 years. This study aimed to investigate the seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers (GMTs) of virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) against JEV G1 and G3 in horses immunized with the G3 vaccine.
Materials and Methods
Serum samples of 1,231 horses immunized with the Anyang 300 vaccine were collected in 2018. VNA titers against JEV KV1899 (G1) and Anyang 300 (G3) were measured in all serum samples using the virus neutralization test. Titers were analyzed according to blood sampling time (prior to and following annual revaccination), age, and region.
Results
Rates of VNA titer >10 were 45.1% and 77.8% for G1, and 49.1% and 82.9% for G3 in samples taken before and after revaccination, respectively. GMTs of genotype-specific VNAs against JEV G1 and G3 were 8.3 and 11.6 before revaccination and rose to 27.2 and 65.4 following revaccination. Overall sero-positivity did not significantly differ between genotypes, but GMTs significantly differed among genotypes and sampling times. No significant difference was found in GMTs among age groups or regions.
Conclusion
Genotype-specific neutralizing antibody titers against JEV G1 and G3 differed significantly in horses immunized with the G3 vaccine. Antigenic differences between genotypes could reduce the vaccine’s efficacy, requiring the development of a new vaccine.

Keyword

Encephalitis; Japanese; Horses; Genotype; Antibodies
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