J Korean Med Sci.  2021 Jan;36(3):e22. 10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e22.

Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus in Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome among Children in Korea

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju, Korea
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea
  • 3Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Background
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a skin disease characterized by blistering and desquamation caused by exfoliative toxins (ETs) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Although many countries show predominance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), cases of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have been reported.
Methods
Twenty-six children aged <15 years diagnosed with SSSS from January 2010 to December 2017 from three hospitals were included. S. aureus isolates from cases were analyzed for multilocus sequence types and ETs. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics, treatment, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of S. aureus
Results
Among the 26 cases, mean age was 2.3 years. According to skin manifestations patients were classified as generalized (n = 10, 38.5%), intermediate (n = 11, 42.3%), and abortive (n = 5, 19.2%). Among all cases, 96.2% (25/26) were due to MRSA and the macrolideresistance rate was 92.3% (24/26). ST89 (n = 21, 80.8%) was the most prevalent clone, followed by single clones of ST1, ST5, ST72, ST121, and ST1507. The eta gene was detected in one (3.8%) isolate which was MSSA. The etb gene was detected in 14 (53.8%) isolates, all of which were ST89. Nafcillin or first-generation cephalosporin was most commonly prescribed (n=20, 76.9%). Vancomycin was administered in four patients (15.4%) and clindamycin in nine patients (34.6%). Among MRSA cases, there was no difference in duration of treatment when comparing the use of antimicrobials to which the causative bacteria were susceptible or non-susceptible (9.75 vs. 8.07 days, P > 0.05).
Conclusion
S. aureus isolated from children with SSSS in Korea demonstrated a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant ST89 clones that harbored theetb gene. The predominance of MRSA suggests that antibiotics to which MRSA are susceptible may be considered for empirical antibiotic treatment in children with SSSS in Korea. Further studies on the role and effectiveness of systemic antibiotics in SSSS are warranted.

Keyword

Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome; Exfoliative Toxin; Staphylococcus aureus; Children
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