J Clin Neurol.  2021 Jan;17(1):52-62. 10.3988/jcn.2021.17.1.52.

Clinical and Neuroimaging Features in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Patients with GDAP1 Mutations

Affiliations
  • 1Departments of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Departments of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Departments of Biological Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, Korea
  • 6Departments of Physics Education, Kongju National University, Gongju, Korea
  • 7Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Background
and Purpose Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 gene (GDAP1) are known to cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). These mutations are very rare in most countries, but not in certain Mediterranean countries. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of Korean CMT patients with GDAP1 mutations.
Methods
Gene sequencing was applied to 1,143 families in whom CMT had been diagnosed from 2005 to 2020. PMP22 duplication was found in 344 families, and whole-exome sequencing was performed in 699 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained using either a 1.5-T or 3.0-T MRI system.
Results
We found ten patients from eight families with GDAP1 mutations: five with autosomal dominant (AD) CMT type 2K (three families with p.R120W and two families with p.Q218E) and three with autosomal recessive (AR) intermediate CMT type A (two families with homozygous p.H256R and one family with p.P111H and p.V219G mutations). The frequency was about 1.0% exclusive of the PMP22 duplication, which is similar to that in other Asian countries. There were clinical differences among AD GDAP1 patients according to mutation sites. Surprisingly, fat infiltrations evident in lower-limb MRI differed between AD and AR patients. The posterior-compartment muscles in the calf were affected early and predominantly in AD patients, whereas AR patients showed fat infiltration predominantly in the anterolateral-compartment muscles.
Conclusions
This is the first cohort report on Korean patients with GDAP1 mutations. The patients with AD and AR inheritance routes exhibited different clinical and neuroimaging features in the lower extremities. We believe that these results will help to expand the knowledge of the clinical, genetic, and neuroimaging features of CMT.

Keyword

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; GDAP1; autosomal dominant; autosomal recessive; CMT2K; CMTRIA
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