Psychoanalysis.  2020 Oct;31(4):70-80. 10.18529/psychoanal.2020.31.4.70.

Temperament and Defense Mechanism Patterns of Patients with Depressive Disorder: In Comparison with or without Anxiety Symptom

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Yeungnam University Hospital, Daegu, Korea


The objective of this study was to compare psychological characteristics in the patients of depressive disorder with or without anxiety.
The study included 416 patients and divided into two groups (210 with anxiety and 206 without anxiety). These data were obtained from a database of patients who had visited the Yeungnam University Hospital’s psychiatric department from April 2009 to March 2019. Levels of anxiety were rated by Korean version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Psychological characteristics between the two groups were compared using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). Also, a multiple regression analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of temperament, character, and defense mechanisms on comorbidity of anxiety.
No significant difference was noticed in demo-graphic characteristics between the two groups. The comorbid anxiety group exhibited higher novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-transcendence but lower reward dependence, self-directedness, cooperativeness. The comorbid anxiety group used defense style such as maladaptive, image-distortion, self-sacrificing more frequently. Multiple regression analysis showed that harm avoidance, self-directedness, self-transcendence, defense style such as maladaptive, image-distortion, adaptive significantly affect-ed the severity of anxiety. Logistic regression analysis showed that self-transcendence and defense style such as maladaptive, image-distortion, adaptive significantly affected the comorbidity of anxiety.
These findings would be useful in under-standing patients of depressive disorder with anxiety. Various psychotherapies can anticipate the prognosis of depressive patients and establish the plan of treatment.


Depressive disorder; Anxiety; Temperament; Character; Defense mechanism
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