Intest Res.  2020 Jul;18(3):249-264. 10.5217/ir.2019.00128.

Pathogenesis and clinical perspectives of extraintestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Avison Biomedical Research Center, Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Affiliate Faculty, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Korea


A considerable number of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) experience extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs), which can present either before or after IBD diagnosis. Unraveling the pathogenic pathways of EIMs in IBD is challenging because of the lack of reliable criteria for diagnosis and difficulty in distinguishing EIMs from external pathologies caused by drugs or other etiologies. Optimizing treatment can also be difficult. Early diagnosis and management of EIM revolve around multidisciplinary teams, and they should have the resources necessary to make and implement appropriate decisions. In addition, specialists of the affected organs should be trained in IBD treatment. Furthermore, patient awareness regarding the extraintestinal symptoms of IBD is of paramount importance for improving patient understanding of disease and health outcomes. Herein, we review the pathogenesis and clinical perspectives of EIMs in IBD.


Inflammatory bowel diseases; Neuromuscular manifestations; Skin manifestations; Eye manifestations
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