J Trauma Inj.  2020 Jun;33(2):88-95. 10.20408/jti.2020.0003.

Analysis of Aspiration Risk Factors in Severe Trauma Patients: Based on Findings of Aspiration Lung Disease in Chest Computed Tomography

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Gil Medical Center, Incheon,
  • 2Department of Traumatology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon,
  • 3Department of Emergency Medicine, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon,

Abstract

Purpose

The present study will identify risk factors for aspiration in severe trauma patients by comparing patients who showed a sign of aspiration lung disease on chest computed tomography (CT) and those who did not.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of the Korean Trauma Data Bank between January 2014 and December 2019 in a single regional trauma center. The inclusion criteria were patients aged ≥18 years with chest CT, and who had an Injury Severity Score ≥16. Patients with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)-chest score ≥1 and lack of medical records were excluded. General characteristics and patient status were analyzed.

Results

425 patients were included in the final analysis. There were 48 patients showing aspiration on CT (11.2%) and 377 patients showing no aspiration (88.7%). Aspiration group showed more endotracheal intubation in the ER (p=0.000) and a significantly higher proportion of severe Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (p=0.000) patients than the non-aspiration group. In AIS as well, the median AIS head score was higher in the aspiration group (p=0.046). Median oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the aspiration group (p=0.002). In a logistic regression analysis, relative to the GCS mild group, the moderate group showed an odds ratio (OR) for aspiration of 2.976 (CI, 1.024–8.647), and the severe group showed an OR of 5.073 (CI, 2.442–10.539).

Conclusions

Poor mental state and head injury increase the risk of aspiration. To confirm for aspiration, it would be useful to perform chest CT for severe trauma patients with a head injury.


Keyword

Pneumonia, aspiration; Tomography, X-ray computed; Multiple trauma; Risk
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