Korean Circ J.  2020 Jul;50(7):586-595. 10.4070/kcj.2019.0401.

Factors Associated with Low Awareness of Heart Failure in the General Population of Korea

  • 1Division of Cardiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Division of Cardiology, Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hwaseong, Korea
  • 3Division of Cardiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea
  • 4Division of Cardiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart Vascular Stroke Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 6Division of Cardiology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
  • 7Division of Cardiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea


Background and Objectives
Factors associated with low heart failure (HF) awareness have not been well-evaluated. This study was conducted to find out which demographic features would be associated with low HF awareness in the general population of Korea.
A telephone interview was conducted with 1,032 adults (58 years and 50.6% were male) across the country. Based on answer to 15 questions about HF, we scored from 0 to 15 points (mean, 7.53±2.75; median, 8; interquartile range, 6–9). A score of <8 was defined as low HF awareness, and a score of ≥8 was defined as high HF awareness.
A total of 478 subjects (46.3%) had low HF awareness. HF awareness scores were 5.18±1.85 and 9.55±1.50 in subjects of low and high HF awareness groups, respectively. Subjects with low HF awareness were older, more female-dominant, more diabetic, lower educational and house hold income levels, and more frequently living in rural areas, compared to those with high HF awareness (p<0.05 for each). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, older age (≥67 years: odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–2.19; p=0.004), female sex (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02–1.73; p=0.034) and low educational level (high school graduate or less vs. college graduate: OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.75–3.22; p<0.001) were significantly associated with low HF awareness even after controlling for potential confounders.
Older age, female sex, and lower level of education were independently associated with low HF awareness in the general Korean population. More attention and education are needed for these vulnerable groups to improve HF awareness.


Awareness; Health surveys; Heart failure; Telephone
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