Endocrinol Metab.  2020 Jun;35(2):377-383. 10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.377.

Consistency of the Glycation Gap with the Hemoglobin Glycation Index Derived from a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System

  • 1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea


Discordances between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and glycemic control are common in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the consistency of the glycation gap with the hemoglobin glycation index (HGI).
From 2016 to 2019, 36 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA), and fasting blood glucose levels were simultaneously measured and 72-hour continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed on the same day. Repeated tests were performed at baseline and 1 month later, without changing patients’ diabetes management. The HGI was calculated as the difference between the measured HbA1c and the predicted HbA1c that was derived from CGM. The glycation gap was calculated as the difference between the measured and GA-based predicted HbA1c levels.
Strong correlations were found between the mean blood glucose (MBG)-based HGI and the prebreakfast glucose-based HGI (r=0.867, P<0.001) and between the glycation gap and the MBG-based HGI (r=0.810, P<0.001). A close correlation was found between the MBG-based HGI at baseline and that after 1 month (r=0.729, P<0.001), with a y-intercept of 0 and a positive slope.
The HGI and glycation gap were highly reproducible, and the magnitudes of repeated determinations were closely correlated. Patients with similar mean glucose levels may have significantly different HbA1c levels.


Glycosylation; Glycosylated hemoglobin A; Glycosylated serum albumin
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