J Korean Orthop Assoc.  2020 Apr;55(2):127-134. 10.4055/jkoa.2020.55.2.127.

Comparison of Gap Pressure in Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy versus Compressive Strength of Allogenous Wedge Bone Blocks

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Korea
  • 2Department of Research and Development, Korea Public Tissue Bank, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Purpose
The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of allogenic bone block and the compressive strength of an allogenic bone block measured by biomechanical experiments, and (2) to compare the maximum pressure load of allogenic bone block with the gap pressure measured at the high tibial opening osteotomy.
Materials and Methods
Ten patients who provided informed consent for gap pressure measurements during opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) were included. The gap pressures were measured at 1 mm intervals while opening the osteotomy site from 8 mm to 14 mm. Seventeen U-shaped allogenous wedge bone blocks were made from the femur, tibia, and humerus. The height, width, cross-sectional area, and cortex thickness of the bone blocks were measured, along with the maximum compressive load just before breakage. The relationship between these characteristics and the maximum pressure load of the bone blocks was evaluated. The gap pressures measured in OWHTO were compared with the maximum pressure loads of the allogenous wedge bone blocks to evaluate the possibility of inserting allogenous wedge bone blocks into the osteotomy site without a distractor in OWHTO.
Results
The OWHTO gap pressure increased with increasing osteotomy site opening. The mean gap pressure, which occurred at a 14-mm opening, was 282±93 N; the maximum pressure was 427 N. The maximum pressure load of the allografts was 13,379±6,469 N (minimum, 5,868; maximum, 29,130 N) and was correlated significantly with the cortical bone thickness (correlation coefficient=0.693, p=0.002) and cross-sectional area (correlation coefficient=0.826, p<0.001). Depending on the sterilization method, the maximum pressure loads for the bone blocks were 13,406±5,928 N for freeze-dried and 13,348±7,449 N for fresh frozen. The maximum compressive load of the allogenous wedge bone blocks was 13.7-times greater than that in OWHTO opened to 14 mm (5,868 N vs. 427 N).
Conclusion
The compressive strength of allogenous wedge bone blocks was sufficiently greater than the gap pressure in OWHTO. Therefore, allogenous wedge bone blocks can be inserted safely into the osteotomy site without a distractor.

Keyword

knee; osteoarthritis; osteotomy; allograft; bone transplantation
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