Clin Orthop Surg.  2020 Jun;12(2):194-199. 10.4055/cios19127.

Clinical Effects and Complications of Pedicle Screw Augmentation with Bone Cement: Comparison of Fenestrated Screw Augmentation and Vertebroplasty Augmentation

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul Sacred Heart General Hospital, Seoul, Korea

Abstract

Background
Pedicle screw augmentation with bone cement has been experimentally demonstrated to increase the pullout strength. However, the mechanisms of screw loosening are complicated and interacting. Although vertebroplasty augmentation and fenestrated screw augmentation have been compared in many studies, there has been no comparative study on their clinical effects and complications in real clinical settings. We investigated clinical effects of bone cement augmentation of a pedicle screw and differences according to augmentation methods.
Methods
Of the total 241 patients who had osteoporosis and underwent posterior pedicle screw fixation without anterior bone graft between January 2010 and December 2016, 132 patients with ≥2 years of radiological follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into group I (unaugmented) and group II (bone cement augmented). Group II was subdivided into II-S group (solid screw augmented) and II-F group (fenestrated screw augmented). The incidence of screw loosening was compared between groups I and II. Cement leakage, screw loosening, and screw fractures were investigated in the subgroups.
Results
In total, 36 of 71 (52%, group I) unaugmented cases and 96 of 170 (56%, group II) augmented cases were followed up for ≥2 years. Of the total 78 solid screw augmented cases, 42 (56%) were in II-S group; 54 of the total 92 (59%) fenestrated screw augmented cases were in II-F group. Groups I and II were homogenous regarding demographic characteristics; II-S and II-F groups were also homogenous. The incidence of screw loosening was 50.0% (18/36) in group I and 7.3% (7/96) in group II (p < 0.001). Cement leakage developed in 2 of 42 (4.8%) cases in II-S group and in 5 of 54 (9.3%) cases in II-F group (p = 0.462). Screw loosening developed in 6 of 42 (14.3%) cases in II-S group and in 1 of 54 cases (1.9%) in II-F group (p = 0.041). Screw fracture developed in none of 42 cases in II-S group and in 3 of 54 cases (5.6%) in II-F group (p = 0.254).
Conclusions
In osteoporotic patients, bone cement augmentation of a pedicle screw decreased the incidence of screw loosening, and fenestrated screw augmentation was more effective than vertebroplasty augmentation.

Keyword

Pedicle screw augmentation; Bone cement; Vertebroplasty; Fenestrated screw
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