Nutr Res Pract.  2020 Feb;14(1):25-31. 10.4162/nrp.2020.14.1.25.

Development of objective indicators for quantitative analysis of sodium intake: the sodium to potassium ratio of second-void urine is correlated with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Gyeonggi 10380, Korea.
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Gyeonggi 11923, Korea.
  • 3Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University Gangnam Hospital, Seoul 06273, Korea.


To date, sodium intake has been evaluated based on spot urine instead of 24-hour (hr) urine collection. Nevertheless, the optimal method for assessing daily sodium intake remains unclear.
Fifteen male (age 32.7 ± 6.5 years) participants were offered 3 meals with a total of 9-10 g salt over 24 hours, and 24-hr urine was collected from the second-void urine of the first day to the first-void urine of the second day. Twenty-four-hr urinary sodium (24UNa) was estimated using Tanaka's equation and the Korean formula, and spot urine Na, potassium (K), chloride (Cl), urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr), specific gravity (SG) and osmolality (Osm) were measured. The ratios of urinary Na to other parameters were calculated, and correlations with total measured 24UNa were identified.
Average 24-hr urine volume was 1,403 ± 475 mL, and measured 24UNa was 143.9 ± 42.1 mEq (range, 87.1-239.4 mEq). Measured 24UNa was significantly correlated with urinary Na/UN (r = 0.560, P < 0.01), urinary Na/Osm (r = 0.510, P < 0.01), urinary Na/Cr (r = 0.392, P < 0.01), urinary Na/K (r = 0.290, P < 0.01), 24UNa estimated using Tanaka's equation (r = 0.452, P < 0.01) and the Korean formula (r = 0.414, P < 0.01), age (r = 0.548, P < 0.01), weight (r = 0.497, P < 0.01), and height (r = 0.393, P < 0.01) in all spot urine samples. Estimated 24UNa based on the second-void spot urine of the first day tended to be more closely correlated with measured 24UNa than were estimates from the other spot urine samples. The significant parameters correlated with the second-void urine of the first day were urinary Na/K (r = 0.647, P < 0.01), urinary Na/Cr (r = 0.558, P < 0.05), and estimated 24UNa using Tanaka's equation (r = 0.616, P < 0.05) and the Korean formula (r = 0.588, P < 0.05).
Second-void urine is more reliable than first-void urine for estimating 24UNa. Urinary Na/K in the second-void urine on the first day is significantly correlated with 24UNa. Further studies are needed to establish the most reliable index and the optimal time of urine sampling for predicting 24UNa.


Dietary sodium; sodium excretion; urine collection
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