Tissue Eng Regen Med.  2019 Dec;16(6):549-571. 10.1007/s13770-019-00196-w.

Current Progress in Tendon and Ligament Tissue Engineering

Affiliations
  • 1Tissue Engineering Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. danieljx08@gmail.com, lawjx@ppukm.ukm.edu.my
  • 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Tendon and ligament injuries accounted for 30% of all musculoskeletal consultations with 4 million new incidences worldwide each year and thus imposed a significant burden to the society and the economy. Damaged tendon and ligament can severely affect the normal body movement and might lead to many complications if not treated promptly and adequately. Current conventional treatment through surgical repair and tissue graft are ineffective with a high rate of recurrence.
METHODS
In this review, we first discussed the anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of tendon and ligament injuries and its current treatment. Secondly, we explored the current role of tendon and ligament tissue engineering, describing its recent advances. After that, we also described stem cell and cell secreted product approaches in tendon and ligament injuries. Lastly, we examined the role of the bioreactor and mechanical loading in in vitro maturation of engineered tendon and ligament.
RESULTS
Tissue engineering offers various alternative ways of treatment from biological tissue constructs to stem cell therapy and cell secreted products. Bioreactor with mechanical stimulation is instrumental in preparing mature engineered tendon and ligament substitutes in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS
Tissue engineering showed great promise in replacing the damaged tendon and ligament. However, more study is needed to develop ideal engineered tendon and ligament.

Keyword

Tendon; Ligament; Tissue engineering; Stem cell; Bioreactor; Exosomes

MeSH Terms

Bioreactors
Exosomes
In Vitro Techniques
Incidence
Ligaments*
Physiology
Recurrence
Referral and Consultation
Stem Cells
Tendons*
Tissue Engineering*
Transplants
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