Immune Netw.  2019 Dec;19(6):e38. 10.4110/in.2019.19.e38.

Human Immunity Against Campylobacter Infection

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Life Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN1 5PH, UK. amberhameed175@gmail.com

Abstract

Campylobacter is a worldwide foodborne pathogen, associated with human gastroenteritis. The efficient translocation of Campylobacter and its ability to secrete toxins into host cells are the 2 key features of Campylobacter pathophysiology which trigger inflammation in intestinal cells and contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly diarrhoea, in humans. The purpose of conducting this literature review is to summarise the current understanding of: i) the human immune responses involved in the elimination of Campylobacter infection and ii) the resistance potential in Campylobacter against these immune responses. This review has highlighted that the intestinal epithelial cells are the preliminary cells which sense Campylobacter cells by means of their cell-surface and cytosolic receptors, activate various receptors-dependent signalling pathways, and recruit the innate immune cells to the site of inflammation. The innate immune system, adaptive immune system, and networking between these systems play a crucial role in bacterial clearance. Different cellular constituents of Campylobacter, mainly cell membrane lipooligosaccharides, capsule, and toxins, provide protection to Campylobacter against the human immune system mediated killing. This review has also identified gaps in knowledge, which are related to the activation of following during Campylobacter infection: i) cathelicidins, bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins, chemokines, and inflammasomes in intestinal epithelial cells; ii) siglec-7 receptors in dendritic cell; iii) acute phase proteins in serum; and iv) T-cell subsets in lymphoid nodules. This review evaluates the existing literature to improve the understanding of human immunity against Campylobacter infection and identify some of the knowledge gaps for future research.

Keyword

Campylobacter; Lipooligosaccharides; Guillain-Barré Syndrome; Inflammasomes; Toll-like receptors; Antigen-presenting cells

MeSH Terms

Acute-Phase Proteins
Antigen-Presenting Cells
Campylobacter Infections*
Campylobacter*
Cathelicidins
Cell Membrane
Chemokines
Cytosol
Dendritic Cells
Epithelial Cells
Gastroenteritis
Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Homicide
Humans*
Immune System
Inflammasomes
Inflammation
T-Lymphocyte Subsets
Toll-Like Receptors
Acute-Phase Proteins
Cathelicidins
Chemokines
Inflammasomes
Toll-Like Receptors
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