Pediatr Infect Vaccine.  2019 Dec;26(3):199-205. 10.14776/piv.2019.26.e16.

Early Detection and Successful Treatment of Vertically Transmitted Fulminant Enteroviral Infection Associated with Various Forms of Arrhythmia and Severe Hepatitis with Coagulopathy

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Cheil General Hospital & Women's Health Care Center, Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul, the Republic of Korea.
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, the Republic of Korea. kosymd@unitel.co.kr

Abstract

Enteroviral infections are common in neonates. One important infection pathway is vertical transmission from an infected mother to her neonate. Here, we report the early detection and successful treatment of a vertically transmitted fulminant enteroviral infection associated with myocarditis and hepatitis. The patient had a sudden onset of high fever on the fourth day of life and developed severe, rapidly progressing symptoms of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), hepatitis, and myocarditis accompanied by tachyarrhythmia. As it was the peak season for enteroviral infections and both the mother and the patient's 36-month-old sibling had a high fever around the time of delivery, we suspected an enteroviral infection. Thus, we initiated prompt evaluation of enteroviral infection, as well as close observation and intensive care of the neonate. We strongly recommend evaluation for the possibility of vertical enterovirus infection in neonates when the mother is suspected of having a viral infection (e.g., high fever and negative results from bacterial infectious studies) around the time of delivery and when the neonate shows some early symptoms of infectious diseases such as thrombocytopenia, DIC, hepatitis, and myocarditis. Early detection of enteroviral infections and prompt implementation of proper treatment are key to reduce the risk of complications and mortality associated with enteroviral infections in neonates.

Keyword

Enterovirus; Myocarditis; Arrhythmias, cardiac; Hepatitis; Infant, newborn
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