Diabetes Metab J.  2019 Oct;43(5):549-559. 10.4093/dmj.2019.0157.

Regulation of Systemic Glucose Homeostasis by T Helper Type 2 Cytokines

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea. minhos@cnu.ac.kr

Abstract

Obesity results in an inflammatory microenvironment in adipose tissue, leading to the deterioration of tissue protective mechanisms. Although recent studies suggested the importance of type 2 immunity in an anti-inflammatory microenvironment in adipose tissue, the regulatory effects of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines on systemic metabolic regulation are not fully understood. Recently, we identified the roles of the Th2 cytokine (interleukin 4 [IL-4] and IL-13)-induced adipokine, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), in adipose tissue in regulating systemic glucose metabolism via signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) activation. Moreover, we showed that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is required to maintain these macrophage-regulating autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways via Th2 cytokine-induced secretion of GDF15. In this review, we discuss how the type 2 immune response and Th2 cytokines regulate metabolism in adipose tissue. Specifically, we review the systemic regulatory roles of Th2 cytokines in metabolic disease and the role of mitochondria in maintenance of type 2 responses in adipose tissue homeostasis.

Keyword

Adipokines; Adipose tissue; Cytokines; Immunity; Metabolic diseases; Obesity

MeSH Terms

Adipokines
Adipose Tissue
Cytokines*
Glucose*
Growth Differentiation Factor 15
Homeostasis*
Metabolic Diseases
Metabolism
Mitochondria
Obesity
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Paracrine Communication
STAT6 Transcription Factor
Adipokines
Cytokines
Glucose
Growth Differentiation Factor 15
STAT6 Transcription Factor
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