Korean J Community Nutr.  2019 Aug;24(4):331-342. 10.5720/kjcn.2019.24.4.331.

Children's Food Intake and Nutrition Levels, and Obesity by Maternal Employment: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2015

Affiliations
  • 1Seongnam Center for Children's Foodservice Management, Seongnam, Korea, Planning and Operation Team leader.
  • 2Department of food and Nutrition, Shingu College, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, Korea, Professor.
  • 3Nutrition Education Major, Graduate School of Education, Gachon University, Seongnam, Korea, professor. shkye@gachon.ac.kr

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
This study examines the intake of food and nutrients of children according to the employment and working hours of their mothers.
METHODS
The married women in the source data from the 6th National Health and Nutrition Survey were classified into full-time working mothers, part-time working mothers and housewives according to the working type and the data on their children from 3 to 18 years old were analyzed using SAS 9.4.
RESULTS
The group from 3 to 5 years old was the smallest group with 682 children (20.2%), followed by the group from 6 to 11 years with 1,345 children (39.8%) and the group from 12 to 18 years old with 1,355 children (40.1%). The lowest rates for having no breakfast and dinner were observed in the group with housewives (p<0.05). The calcium and phosphorous intakes were the highest in the group with housewives at 61.9% and 126.8%, respectively, and the lowest in the group with full-time working mothers at 54.7% and 115.3%, respectively (p<0.05). The group with full-time working mothers had the highest rate in the calcium and iron intake less than the dietary reference intake at 74.9% and 30.0%, respectively. It indicated that the group with full-time working mothers did not have sufficient nutrients as compared to the other two groups. Moreover, the group with the part-time working mothers showed the high vitamin A intake ratio of 41.4% (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
This study found evidence of a negative association between mother's employment status and children's diet quality. The employment and economic activity of married women will continuously increase in the future. Therefore, a national nutrition policy is required to provide quality nutrition care for children in the households.

Keyword

National Health and Nutrition Survey; working mothers; children; nutritional status

MeSH Terms

Breakfast
Calcium
Child
Diet
Eating*
Employment*
Family Characteristics
Female
Humans
Iron
Korea*
Meals
Mothers
Nutrition Policy
Nutrition Surveys*
Nutritional Status
Obesity*
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Vitamin A
Calcium
Iron
Vitamin A
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