J Nutr Health.  2018 Dec;51(6):556-566. 10.4163/jnh.2018.51.6.556.

Relationship between health behaviors and high level of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol applying cardiovascular risk factors among Korean adults: based on the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI), 2013 ~ 2015

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Nursing, Hanseo University, Seosan, Chungnam 31962, Korea. bkcha@hanseo.ac.kr

Abstract

PURPOSE
This study was designed to determine the relationship between health behaviors and high levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) according to cardiovascular risk factors among Korean adults.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study was based on the sixth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES VI). Participants were 13,841 adults aged 19 years and older. Cardiovascular risk factors were stroke, myocardial infarction or angina, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension, aging, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) under 40 mg/dL and HDL-cholesterol over 60 mg/dL. Cardiovascular risk groups were classified as very high risk (stroke, myocardial infarction or angina), high risk (diabetes mellitus), moderate risk (over 2 risk factors), and low risk (below 1 risk factor). The prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol was calculated using the LDL-cholesterol target level according to cardiovascular risk group.
RESULTS
The prevalence of high LDL-cholesterol was 25.5% in males and 21.7% in females. Complex sample cross tabulation demonstrated that the high LDL-cholesterol and normal groups differed significantly according to age, education, body mass index, percentage of energy from carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat and n-6 in males and females. These two groups were also significantly different according to smoking in males and the percentage of energy from n-3 in females. Complex sample multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for multiple confounding factors demonstrated that the probability of high LDL-cholesterol was significantly associated with current smoking (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.40-1.99), obesity (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.64-2.31) in males, and current smoking (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.19-2.52), obesity (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39-1.90), percentage of energy from n-3 (quartile 1 vs. quartile 2; OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96; quartile 1 vs. quartile 3; OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.94; quartile 1 vs. quartile 4: OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51-0.87) in females.
CONCLUSION
This study reveals the impact of smoking, obesity, energy percentage of nutrient intake on LDL-cholesterol.

Keyword

adult; low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; carbohydrate; fat; smoking

MeSH Terms

Adult*
Aging
Body Mass Index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus
Education
Female
Health Behavior*
Humans
Hypertension
Korea*
Logistic Models
Male
Myocardial Infarction
Nutrition Surveys*
Obesity
Prevalence
Risk Factors*
Smoke
Smoking
Stroke
Smoke
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