J Korean Dysphagia Soc.  2019 Jul;9(2):61-67. 10.34160/jkds.2019.9.2.002.

Comparison of Effects of the Volume, Texture and Taste of Food on Tongue Pressure

  • 1Division of Occupational Therapy, Department of Rehabiliation Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea. otprime@wku.ac.kr


This study examined how changes in the volume, texture, and taste of food affect the variation of tongue pressure during the swallowing of food in healthy adults.
Fifty-four healthy subjects participated in this study. The tongue pressure was measured using an Iowa Oral. Performance Instrument (IOPI) during swallowing of food in 54 healthy adults. The food bolus with modified volumes (3, 5, 10, and 15 ml), textures (water, puree, and cracker), and tastes (pure water, sour taste, sweet taste, and salty taste) were provided and the variation of the tongue pressure was traced during the swallowing of food.
The tongue pressure changed significantly when the volume of food chunks increased. When the texture of food was modified, the tongue pressure was significantly different when swallowing a cracker than when swallowing water and puree. In addition, the tongue pressure was increased more by a sour taste liquid than pure water or sweet taste liquid.
When swallowing food, the tongue pressure at the appropriate level is essential for safe swallowing. Because modification of the volume, texture, and taste of food can induce the variation of tongue pressure, it can be recommended as an effective therapeutic method that can move food in the mouth.


Deglutition; Texture; Tongue pressure; Volume
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