J Genet Med.  2019 Jun;16(1):15-18. 10.5734/JGM.2019.16.1.15.

Concurrent SHORT syndrome and 3q duplication syndrome

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, California Hospital Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. alexanderboaz@students.rossu.edu
  • 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Ross University School of Medicine, Miramar, FL, USA.

Abstract

SHORT syndrome is an extremely rare congenital condition due to a chromosomal mutation of the PIK3R1 gene found at 5q13.1. SHORT is a mnemonic representing six manifestations of the syndrome: (S) short stature, (H) hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia, (O) ocular depression, (R) Rieger anomaly, and (T) teething delay. Other key aspects of this syndrome not found in the mnemonic include lipodystrophy, triangular face with dimpled chin (progeroid facies, commonly referred to as facial gestalt), hearing loss, vision loss, insulin resistance, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). 3q duplication syndrome is rare syndrome that occurs due to a gain of function mutation found at 3q25.31-33 that presents with a wide array of manifestations including internal organ defects, genitourinary malformations, hand and foot deformities, and mental disability. We present a case of a 2 year and 3 month old male with SHORT syndrome and concurrent 3q duplication syndrome. The patient presented at birth with many of the common manifestations of SHORT syndrome such as bossing of frontal bone of skull, triangular shaped face, lipodystrophy, micrognathia, sunken eyes, and thin, wrinkled skin (progeroid appearance). Additionally, he presented with findings associated with 3q duplication syndrome such as cleft palate and cryptorchidism. Although there is no specific treatment for these conditions, pediatricians should focus on referring patients to various specialists in order to treat each individual manifestation.

Keyword

Mutation; Syndrome; Chromosomes; Lipodystrophy; Fetal growth retardation
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