J Rhinol.  2019 May;26(1):1-7. 10.18787/jr.2019.26.1.1.

Neurogenesis and Regulation of Olfactory Epithelium

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Eunpyeong St. Mar's, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. entkbg@gmail.com

Abstract

The olfactory epithelium is capable of structural and functional recovery after injury through neurogenesis. Neurogenesis occurs via stem cells in the olfactory epithelium. Horizontal basal cells and globose basal cells in the basal layer of the epithelium have the characteristics of stem cells and progenitor cells of olfactory neurons. In order for the horizontal basal cells and globose basal cells to differentiate into olfactory neurons, distinct transcriptional factors are required at each stage. These transcription factors inhibit or synergize with each other or cells at each differentiation stage, regulating olfactory neurogenesis. Recently, the regulation of neurogenesis and development through epigenetic controls that change gene expression without changing the gene sequence have been studied. Studies of olfactory epithelium have helped to elucidate complex neurological systems including spinal cord and brain. In particular, features of neurogenesis will lead to medical advances in the treatment of central nervous diseases, which until this time have been considered impossible.

Keyword

Neurogenesis; Olfactory epithelium; Olfactory neural stem cell; Basal cell; Transcription factor
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