J Korean Orthop Assoc.  2019 Apr;54(2):127-132. 10.4055/jkoa.2019.54.2.127.

Does a Preoperative Temporary Discontinuation of Antiplatelet Medication before Surgery Increase the Allogenic Transfusion Rate and Blood Loss after Total Knee Arthroplasty?

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Daegu Catholic University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea. cwk1009@hanmail.net

Abstract

PURPOSE
The aim of this study was to determine if preoperative temporary discontinuation of antiplatelet medication (aspirin, clopidogrel, or cilostazol) is a safe procedure that does not increase early postoperative bleeding and allogenic blood transfusion after a total knee arthroplasty.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A retrospective analysis was conducted among consecutive patients who underwent navigation assisted primary total knee arthroplasty performed by a single surgeon, from January 2013 to December 2016. A total of 369 patients enrolled in this study were divided into two groups, 271 patients with no history of antiplatelet therapy and 98 patients who underwent 7 days of temporary withdrawal of antiplatelet therapy. Comparative analysis between the two groups, on the variation of hemoglobin and hematocrit during the first and second postoperative days, was conducted to determine the amount of early postoperative bleeding and the frequency of allogenic blood transfusion during hospitalization.
RESULTS
The variation of hemoglobin, hematocrit during the first and second postoperative days and the frequency of allogenic blood transfusion between no history of antiplatelet medication and discontinuation antiplatelet medication before 7 days from surgery were similar in both groups. Of the 369 patients, 149 patients received a blood transfusion during their hospitalization. Compared to patients who did not receive a blood transfusion, those who did received blood transfusion were significantly older in age, smaller in height, lighter in weight, and showed significantly lower preoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit values. No statistically significant differences in sex, preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, and the history of antiplatelet medication until 7 days prior to surgery were observed between the two groups according to blood transfusion.
CONCLUSION
Compared to patients with no history of antiplatelet medication, the temporary discontinuation of antiplatelet medication 7 days prior to surgery in patients undergoing antiplatelet medication did not increase the amount of postoperative bleeding or the need for allogenic blood transfusion.

Keyword

total knee arthroplasty; transfusion; antiplatelet medication
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