Pediatr Infect Vaccine.  2019 Apr;26(1):32-41. 10.14776/piv.2019.26.e4.

Childhood Tuberculosis Contact Investigation and Treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection: a Single Center Study, 2014–2017

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, the Republic of Korea. eycho@cnuh.co.kr
  • 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, the Republic of Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
In order to prevent tuberculosis transmission early, it is important to diagnose and treat tuberculosis infection by investigating people who have contact with patients with active tuberculosis.
METHODS
From July 2014 to June 2017, the intrafamilial childhood contacts of the patients who were diagnosed with active tuberculosis at Chungnam National University Hospital were investigated for the presence of tuberculosis infection. We also retrospectively analyzed the treatment status of children treated with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) during the same period.
RESULTS
Among the 269 children who had intrafamilial contact with active tuberculosis patient, 20 (7.4%) did not receive any screening. At the first screening, one (0.4%) was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, seven (2.8%) had a previous history of tuberculosis infection, and 42 patients (16.9%) were diagnosed with LTBI. At the second screening, 29 patients (11.6%) were diagnosed with LTBI, and 61 patients did not finish the investigation. Only 188 (69.9%) out of 269 patients completed the investigation. Ninety patients received treatment for LTBI and 83 patients (92.2%) completed the treatment, of which 18 patients had side effects such as rash, fatigue, and gastrointestinal symptoms. However, there were no serious side effects requiring treatment discontinuation.
CONCLUSIONS
The completion rate of childhood tuberculosis contact investigation was low, but the completion rate of LTBI treatment was high in children without serious side effects. In order to prevent and manage the spread of tuberculosis, active private-public partnership efforts and education of the patient and guardian are needed.

Keyword

Tuberculosis; Latent tuberculosis; Infectious disease transmission; Child

MeSH Terms

Child
Chungcheongnam-do
Disease Transmission, Infectious
Education
Exanthema
Fatigue
Humans
Latent Tuberculosis*
Mass Screening
Retrospective Studies
Tuberculosis*
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
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