J Korean Foot Ankle Soc.  2019 Mar;23(1):24-30. 10.14193/jkfas.2019.23.1.24.

Validation of Electronic Foot Function Index in Patients with Foot and Ankle Disease: A Randomized, Prospective Multicenter Study

  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Wonkwang University Sanbon Hospital, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Gunpo, Korea. castkim@hanmail.net
  • 3Seoul Foot and Ankle Center, Dubalo Orthopedic Clinic, Seoul, Korea.
  • 4Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
  • 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan, Korea.
  • 6Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 7Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sun General Hospital, Daejeon, Korea.
  • 8Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 9Department of Orthopedic Surgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.
  • 10Department of Orthopedic Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.
  • 11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
  • 12Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea.
  • 13Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 14Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 15Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea.


To evaluate the efficiency of the electronic foot function index (eFFI) through a prospective, random based, multi-institutional study.
The study included 227 patients ranging in age from 20 to 79 years, visited for surgery in different 15 institutes, and agreed to volunteer. The patients were assigned randomly into a paper-based evaluated group (n=113) and tablet-based evaluated group (n=114). The evaluation was done on the day of hospital admission and the method was changed on the second day of surgery and re-evaluated. PADAS 2.0 (https://www.proscore.kr) was used as an electronic evaluation program.
There were no differences in age and sex in both groups. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) evaluation revealed an eFFI ICC of 0.924, showing that both results were similar. The evaluation time was shorter in the tablet-based group than the paper-based group (paper vs tablet, 3.7±3.8 vs 2.3±1.3 minutes). Thirty-nine patients (17.2%) preferred to use paper and 131 patients (57.7%) preferred the tablet. Fifty-seven patients (25.1%) found both ways to be acceptable.
eFFI through tablet devices appears to be more constant than the paper-based program. In addition, it required a shorter amount of time and the patients tended to prefer the tablet-based program. Overall, tablet and cloud system can be beneficial to a clinical study.


Questionnaire; Foot function index; Patient-reported outcome measures
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