Korean J Pediatr Infect Dis.  2000 Nov;7(2):218-225. 10.14776/kjpid.2000.7.2.218.

Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Indigenous Vivax Malaria in Children in Kyonggi-do Province Area

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Korea. kjhan@olmh.cuk.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, Pocheon Medical Center, Korea.
  • 3Department of Pediatrics, KumCheon Medical Center, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
In Korea, vivax malaria has been reemerged since 1993 after being abscent for more than 10 years. There are several possibilities of casuality of recent epidemic, although it is still unclear. The epidemiologic studies including case analysis and entomological reseach have been undertaken for a successful control measure. But, unfortunately those studies have been rarely dealt with cases of children. Therefore, this study was designed to figure out the characteristics of epidemiolgic and clinical features in children with indigenous vivax malaria.
METHODS
The study 21 cases below 15 years of age, who were diagnosed as vivax malaria and resided in kyounggi-do province area during 1998. 9~1999. 8. We retrospectively analyzed epidemiologic data concernig with occurrence of vivax, and clinical manifestations, abnormal laboratory findings and outcomes including therapeutic responses.
RESULTS
All cases were inhabitants of the endemic areas for vivax malaria in northwestern part of Kyonggi-do or western Kangwon-do, and Paju-gun was the most prevalent. Indigenous malaria cases of this study were more prevalent in children above 10 years old age, and in male. Seasonally, vivax malaria in children occurred throughout the year except January, March and November, and the incidence was the highest in July. Clinical manifestations revealed that 48 hour cyclic fever pattern was the major fever pattern, and other symptoms such as headache, vomiting, poor appetites, chilling, abdominal pain and diarrhea were concomitantly developed. And splenomegaly revealed the main abnormal findings on physical examination, and anemia was the most frequent abnormal finding in laboratory examinations. Young trophozoite was frequently observed on peripheral blood smears. The therapeutic responses of chlorquine were very good in all cases, and no recurrence developed in follow up cases.
CONCLUSION
Geographical and seasonal occurrence distributions of indigenous vivax malaria cases in children were very similar to those of adults as followings; Inhabitants of the endemic region, more prevalent in male, and more common during the summer season. Clinically, 48 hour cyclic fever pattern, splenomegaly and anemia were most frequent and important manifestations in children cases, and clinical courses were not serious. On blood smears, young trophozoite was most dominantly examined in children. Generally, the therapeutic outcomes were excellent, and recurrences were not observed.

Keyword

Vivax malaria; Indigenous; Epidemiology; Clinical study; Children
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