Exp Mol Med.  2018 Feb;50(2):e438. 10.1038/emm.2017.254.

Arginase II inhibition prevents interleukin-8 production through regulation of p38 MAPK phosphorylation activated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in nLDL-stimulated hAoSMCs

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea. ryoosw08@kangwon.ac.kr
  • 2Korea Basic Science Institute, Chuncheon Center, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.
  • 3Department of New Drug Discovery and Development, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
  • 4Department of Biochemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
  • 5Department of Neurobiology, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.
  • 6Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Arginase inhibition exhibits beneficial effects in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In human aortic smooth muscle cells (hAoSMCs), native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL) induced the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) that is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we examined the effect of arginase inhibition on IL-8 production and the underlying mechanism. In hAoSMCs, reverse transcription-PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemistry with MitoTracker confirmed that arginase II was confined predominantly to mitochondria. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester. The MMP decreased upon nLDL stimulation but was restored upon arginase inhibition. MMP loss caused by nLDL was prevented by treatment with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM. In mitochondrial Ca(2+) measurements using Rhod-2 AM, increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels by nLDL were inhibited upon preincubation with an arginase inhibitor. Among the polyamines, spermine, an arginase activity-dependent product, caused mitochondrial Ca(2+) movement. The nLDL-induced MMP change resulted in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and IL-8 production and was prevented by the arginase inhibitors BAPTA and ruthenium 360. In isolated AoSMCs from ApoE(−/−) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, arginase activity, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, spermine and mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) production were increased compared with wild-type (WT) mice. However, in AoSMCs isolated from arginase II-null mice, increases in MMP and decreases in mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were noted compared with WT and were associated with p38 MAPK activation and IL-8 production. These data suggest that arginase activity regulates the change in MMP through Ca(2+) uptake that is essential for p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IL-8 production.


MeSH Terms

Animals
Arginase*
Blotting, Western
Cardiovascular Diseases
Diet
Humans
Immunohistochemistry
Interleukin-8*
Lipoproteins
Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial*
Mice
Mitochondria
Mitochondrial Membranes*
Myocytes, Smooth Muscle
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases*
Phosphorylation*
Polyamines
Protein Kinases
Ruthenium
Spermine
Arginase
Interleukin-8
Lipoproteins
Polyamines
Protein Kinases
Ruthenium
Spermine
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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