Biomed Eng Lett.  2018 May;8(2):167-181. 10.1007/s13534-018-0060-9.

Fast photoacoustic imaging systems using pulsed laser diodes: a review

  • 1School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459, Singapore.


Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a newly emerging imaging modality for preclinical and clinical applications. The conventional PAI systems use Q-switched Nd:YAG/OPO (Optical Parametric Oscillator) nanosecond lasers as excitation sources. Such lasers are expensive, bulky, and imaging speed is limited because of low pulse repetition rate. In recent years, the semiconductor laser technology has advanced to generate high-repetitions rate near-infrared pulsed lasers diodes (PLDs) which are reliable, less-expensive, hand-held, and light-weight, about 200 g. In this article, we review the development and demonstration of PLD based PAI systems for preclinical and clinical applications reported in recent years.


Photoacoustic tomography; Photoacoustic microscopy; Pulsed laser diode; Ultrasound system; Clinical translation; In vivo imaging

MeSH Terms

Lasers, Semiconductor
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