Int J Oral Biol.  2018 Jun;43(2):61-68. 10.11620/IJOB.2018.43.2.061.

Methanol Extracts of Codium fragile Induces Apoptosis through G1/S Cell Cycle Arrest in FaDu Human Hypopharynx Squamous Carcinoma Cells

  • 1Department of Oral Biochemistry, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-dong, Dong-gu, Gwangju, 501-759, Republic of Korea.
  • 2Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, 375 Seosuk-Dong, Dong-Gu, Gwangju, 501-759, Republic of Korea.


Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot is an edible green seaweed that belong to the Codiaceae family and has been used in Oriental medicine for the treatment of enterobiasis, dropsy, and dysuria. Methanol extract of codium fragile has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, although the anti-cancer effect on oral cancer has not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity and the mechanism of cell death by methanol extracts of Codium fragile (MeCF) on human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Our data showed that MeCF inhibits cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly induced apoptosis, as determined by the MTT assay, Live/Dead assay, and DAPI stain. In addition, MeCF induced the proteolytic cleavage of procaspase −3, −7, −9 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase(PARP), and upregulated or downregulated the expression of mitochondrial-apoptosis factor, Bax(pro-apoptotic factor), and Bcl-2(anti-apoptotic factor), . Futhermore, MeCF induced a cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase through suppressing the expression of the cell cycle cascade proteins, p21, CDK4, CyclinD1, and phospho-Rb. Taken together, these results indicated that MeCF inhibits cell growth, and this inhibition is mediated by caspase- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways through cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase in human FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. Therefore, methanol extracts of Codium fragile can be provided as a novel chemotherapeutic drug due to its growth inhibition effects and induction of apoptosis in human oral cancer cells.


Oral cancer; Codium fragile; Apoptosis; Cell cycle arrest

MeSH Terms

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell*
Cell Cycle Checkpoints*
Cell Cycle*
Cell Death
Cell Survival
Medicine, East Asian Traditional
Mouth Neoplasms
Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose
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