Korean J Pediatr.  2018 Oct;61(10):307-314. 10.3345/kjp.2018.06870.

Understanding of type 1 diabetes mellitus: what we know and where we go

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea. chongkun@pusan.ac.kr

Abstract

The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents is increasing worldwide. Combined effects of genetic and environmental factors cause T1DM, which make it difficult to predict whether an individual will inherit the disease. Due to the level of self-care necessary in T1DM maintenance, it is crucial for pediatric settings to support achieving optimal glucose control, especially when adolescents are beginning to take more responsibility for their own health. Innovative insulin delivery systems, such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), and noninvasive glucose monitoring systems, such as continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), allow patients with T1DM to achieve a normal and flexible lifestyle. However, there are still challenges in achieving optimal glucose control despite advanced technology in T1DM administration. In this article, disease prediction and current management of T1DM are reviewed with special emphasis on biomarkers of pancreatic β-cell stress, CSII, glucose monitoring, and several other adjunctive therapies.

Keyword

Type 1 diabetes mellitus; Biomarkers; Glucose monitoring; Glucose control

MeSH Terms

Adolescent
Biomarkers
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1*
Glucose
Humans
Incidence
Insulin
Life Style
Self Care
Biomarkers
Glucose
Insulin
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