J Neurogastroenterol Motil.  2019 Jan;25(1):82-90. 10.5056/jnm18114.

Gender-specific Effect of Micronutrient on Non-erosive Reflux Disease and Erosive Esophagitis

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Gastroenterology, Center for Gastric Cancer, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Buk-gu, Daegu, Korea. nam20131114@gmail.com
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Cancer Prevention & Detection, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.
  • 3Department of Clinical Nutrition, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS
The effect of dietary micronutrients on non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and reflux esophagitis is unclear. We aim to evaluate the gender-specific effect of micronutrient on erosive esophagitis and NERD.
METHODS
A total of 11 690 participants underwent endoscopy and completed 3-day recordings for dietary intake and questionnaires for reflux symptoms from 2004 to 2008. To evaluate the effect of dietary micronutrients on NERD or erosive esophagitis, adjusted regression analysis with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was used. In addition, we performed gender-specific analysis.
RESULTS
Prevalence of NERD and erosive esophagitis was 6.8% and 11.2% in men and 9.1% and 2.4% in women. In adjusted analysis, high intake of vitamin A (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.96), retinol (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59-0.90), vitamin B2 (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54-0.87), vitamin B6 (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.58-0.96), folic acid (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62-0.96), calcium (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.82), and iron (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53-0.87) had an inverse association with NERD. However, erosive esophagitis has no relationship with micronutrients except vitamin C (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.62-0.98). High dietary intake of calcium reduced the risk of NERD in men and high dietary intake of many micronutrients reduced NERD in women.
CONCLUSIONS
While many dietary micronutrients reduced NERD, they had no effect on erosive esophagitis. The effect of micronutrient on NERD was more prominent in women than men.

Keyword

Esophagitis; Gender identity; Micronutrients; Non-erosive reflux disease

MeSH Terms

Ascorbic Acid
Calcium
Endoscopy
Esophagitis*
Esophagitis, Peptic
Female
Folic Acid
Gender Identity
Humans
Iron
Male
Micronutrients*
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Riboflavin
Vitamin A
Vitamin B 6
Ascorbic Acid
Calcium
Folic Acid
Iron
Micronutrients
Riboflavin
Vitamin A
Vitamin B 6
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