Gut Liver.  2018 Mar;12(2):149-157. 10.5009/gnl17126.

Efficacy of a Three-Dimensional-Printed Training Simulator for Endoscopic Biopsy in the Stomach

  • 1Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


We used three-dimensional (3D) printing technology to create a new biopsy simulator for the stomach and investigated its efficacy and realism in endoscopic biopsy training.
A novel stomach biopsy simulator, with 10 biopsy sites, was produced using a 3D printer. We enrolled 26 participants, including 10 residents, six first-year fellows, five second-year fellows, and five faculty members. We recorded and reviewed five training sessions and evaluated the simulator with questionnaires using a 7-point Likert scale.
The mean completion time (seconds) was 244.8±11.5 for the residents, 107.9±33.4 for the first-year fellows, 106.8±20.1 for the second-year fellows, and 103.8±19.2 for the faculty members. The completion time became shorter with repetition and was significantly lower for residents by the fifth trial (first trial, 347.0±159.5; fifth trial, 169.6±57.7; p=0.007). The faculty members strongly agreed that the simulator realistically reflected endoscopic handling and was reasonable for endoscopic training (scores of 6.2±0.8 and 6.4±0.9, respectively). Importantly, experienced endoscopists reported that the difficulty levels of the 10 biopsy sites in the simulator were a realistic match for the actual stomach.
This endoscopic biopsy simulator created using a 3D printer is a realistic and useful method to improve the biopsy skills of trainee endoscopists.


Printing; three-dimensional; Endoscopy; Simulator; Biopsy; Education
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