Korean J Orthod.  2018 Nov;48(6):357-366. 10.4041/kjod.2018.48.6.357.

Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of transverse dental compensation in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry

  • 1Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea. sangkim@wku.ac.kr


The purpose of this study was to analyze the transverse dental compensation in reference to the maxillary and mandibular basal bones using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and evaluate the correlations between transverse dental compensation and skeletal asymmetry variables in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry.
Thirty patients with skeletal Class I (control group; 15 men, 15 women) and 30 patients with skeletal Class III with menton deviation (asymmetry group; 16 men, 14 women) were included. Skeletal and dental measurements were acquired from reconstructed CBCT images using OnDemand3D 1.0 software. All measurements were compared between groups and between the deviated and nondeviated sides of the asymmetry group. Correlation coefficients for the association between skeletal and dental measurements were calculated.
Differences in the ramus inclination (p < 0.001), maxillary canine and first molar inclinations (p < 0.001), and distances from the canine and first molar cusp tips to the midmaxillary or midmandibular planes (p < 0.01) between the right and left sides were significantly greater in the asymmetry group than in the control group. In the asymmetry group, the ramus inclination difference (p < 0.05) and mandibular canting (p < 0.05) were correlated with the amount of menton deviation. In addition, dental measurements were positively correlated with the amount of menton deviation (p < 0.05).
Transverse dental compensation was correlated with the maxillary and mandibular asymmetry patterns. These results would be helpful in understanding the pattern of transverse dental compensation and planning surgical procedure for patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry.


Skeletal Class III malocclusion; Facial asymmetry; Transverse dental compensation; Cone-beam computed tomography

MeSH Terms

Compensation and Redress*
Cone-Beam Computed Tomography*
Facial Asymmetry*


  • Figure 1 Landmarks and reference planes. A, Reference planes for skeletal measurements. B, Maxillary reference planes. C, Mandibular reference planes. N (nasion), Point of contact between the frontal bone and suture between the two halves of the nasal bones; Or (orbitale), lowest point on the infraorbital margin of each orbit; FH, Frankfort horizontal; ANS (anterior nasal spine), tip of the anterior nasal spine of the palatal bone; Mx (maxillare); zygomaticoalveolar crest, points show maximum concavity on the contour of the maxilla around the molars and lower contour of the maxillozygomatic process; Go (gonion), midpoint of the posterior border of the mandibular angle; Me (menton), most inferior point on the symphysis of the mandible.

  • Figure 2 A, Skeletal measurements. Positive maxillary or mandibular canting is relative to the direction of menton deviation. B, Maxillary dental measurements. C, Mandibular dental measurements. Co (condylion), Most superior point of the condyle; Mx (maxillare); FH, Frankfort horizontal; Go (gonion), midpoint of the posterior border of the mandibular angle; Me (menton), most inferior point on the symphysis of the mandible.


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