J Nutr Health.  2018 Oct;51(5):414-422. 10.4163/jnh.2018.51.5.414.

Association between nutrient intakes and prevalence of depressive disorder in Korean adults: 2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • 1Department of Food and Nutrition, College of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 13120, Korea. skysea@gachon.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Public Health, General Graduate School, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.
  • 3Research Group of Functional Food Materials, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju, Jeonbuk 55365, Korea.


Dietary nutrients may play a significant role in depressive disorders. However, sufficient evidences in epidemiological studies are limited. We investigated the cross-sectional association between dietary nutrients and the prevalence of depressive disorder in Korean adults using representative Korean data.
Participants were 2,938 adults aged 19 ~ 64 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 2014. Dietary intakes were assessed using 24-h recall method. Depressive disorder was assessed using Patients Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9, self-depression test) as applied in 2014 KNHANES only. We defined depressive disorder as having a PHQ-9 score of ≥10, which was characterized as moderate depression and more. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) of depressive disorder.
Among the 2,938 subjects, 170 were identified as having depressive disorder. The multivariate-adjusted regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of depression was significantly associated with riboflavin (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24-0.85, p for trend = 0.018), thiamin (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.23-0.99, p for trend = 0.045), and vitamin C (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34-0.95, p for trend = 0.025) in the highest versus lowest tertiles of intake.
The high consumption of riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin C was associated with the low prevalence of depressive disorder in Korean adults.


depressive disorder; riboflavin; thiamin; vitamin C; KNHANES

MeSH Terms

Ascorbic Acid
Depressive Disorder*
Epidemiologic Studies
Logistic Models
Nutrition Surveys*
Ascorbic Acid

Cited by  1 articles

Food and nutrient intake status of Korean elderly by perceived anxiety and depressive condition: data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 ~ 2015
Da-Mee Kim, Kyung-Hee Kim
J Nutr Health. 2019;52(1):58-72.    doi: 10.4163/jnh.2019.52.1.58.


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