J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg.  2018 Jun;20(2):112-119. 10.7461/jcen.2018.20.2.112.

The Prevalence and Characterization of Cerebral Microbleeds in Young People Having Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Neurosurgery and Neuroscience Radiosurgery Adaptive Hybrid Neurosurgery Research Center, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea. koosjw@daum.net
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea.
  • 3Department of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea.

Abstract


OBJECTIVE
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are known as the neuroimaging markers of risk in stroke and dementia. Many studies on CMBs in elderly patients with hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke have been reported; however, reports on CMBs in young populations with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are lacking.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A total of 272 patients aged 18-54 years presented to our hospital with ICH between December 2009 and August 2017. Among these, CMB presence, count, and topography with respect to ICH were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gradient echo images (GREs). We also evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CMBs.
RESULTS
Among 272 patients, only 66 underwent GRE T2-weighted MRI. CMBs were detected in 40 patients (61%), with 29 (73%) being of the multifocal type. Among the 219 CMBs, 150 (68.5%) were of the deep type and 69 (31.5%) of the lobar type. CMB prevalence was higher in men. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, history of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.048; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-14.32; p = 0.030), and male sex (aOR, 4.233; 95% CI, 1.09-16.48; p = 0.037) were independently associated with CMBs.
CONCLUSION
In young patients who presented with spontaneous ICH, CMBs were highly prevalent in 61% of patients and strongly associated with history of hypertension and male sex.

Keyword

Cerebral microbleeds; Intracranial hemorrhage; Risk factors; Young adult
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