Perinatology.  2018 Sep;29(3):114-120. 10.14734/PN.2018.29.3.114.

Maternal Smoke during Pregnancy Programs for Bone Disturbance in Offspring

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. mjohmd@korea.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sungae Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract


OBJECTIVE
A number of epidemiological studies have reported that smoking causes a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and an increase in the risk of bone fracture, and is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy results in a variety of adverse developmental outcomes associated with intrauterine growth restriction. However, little is known about the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on BMD in the offspring.
METHODS
Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (1 or 2 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week) (smoke group) or sham exposed (control group) throughout pregnancy. After delivery, nursing dams and offspring were kept together in individual cages. At 4 weeks, the fourth lumbar vertebral body of each offspring was scanned with a micro- computed tomography apparatus. Trabecular parameters including bone volume fraction (bone volume/total volume, %), thickness (mm), number (1/mm), and separation (mm) were evaluated. The BMD was also measured.
RESULTS
No differences in the trabecular bone volume fraction, thickness, separation, and number and the BMD were observed between the offspring of the control and 1 cigarette smoking dams. However, trabecular bone volume fraction, thickness, number, and the BMD were significantly lower, whereas trabecular separation was higher in the offspring of 2 cigarette smoking dams compared with those of the offspring from control dams.
CONCLUSION
Maternal smoking during pregnancy decreased BMD and altered bone microarchitecture in the offspring. These results will become a great source to inform the importance of quitting smoking during pregnancy.

Keyword

Bone; Cigarette; Pregnancy; Mice
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