Perinatology.  2018 Sep;29(3):114-120. 10.14734/PN.2018.29.3.114.

Maternal Smoke during Pregnancy Programs for Bone Disturbance in Offspring

  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sungae Hospital, Seoul, Korea.


A number of epidemiological studies have reported that smoking causes a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and an increase in the risk of bone fracture, and is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy results in a variety of adverse developmental outcomes associated with intrauterine growth restriction. However, little is known about the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on BMD in the offspring.
Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (1 or 2 cigarettes/day, 5 days/week) (smoke group) or sham exposed (control group) throughout pregnancy. After delivery, nursing dams and offspring were kept together in individual cages. At 4 weeks, the fourth lumbar vertebral body of each offspring was scanned with a micro- computed tomography apparatus. Trabecular parameters including bone volume fraction (bone volume/total volume, %), thickness (mm), number (1/mm), and separation (mm) were evaluated. The BMD was also measured.
No differences in the trabecular bone volume fraction, thickness, separation, and number and the BMD were observed between the offspring of the control and 1 cigarette smoking dams. However, trabecular bone volume fraction, thickness, number, and the BMD were significantly lower, whereas trabecular separation was higher in the offspring of 2 cigarette smoking dams compared with those of the offspring from control dams.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy decreased BMD and altered bone microarchitecture in the offspring. These results will become a great source to inform the importance of quitting smoking during pregnancy.


Bone; Cigarette; Pregnancy; Mice

MeSH Terms

Bone Density
Epidemiologic Studies
Fractures, Bone
Risk Factors
Tobacco Products


  • Fig. 1 The characteristics of the bone mineral density (BMD) of the fourth lumbar vertebral body from the control, 1 cigarette, and 2 cigarette groups (n=8 for each group). *P<0.05.

  • Fig. 2 Representative 2-dimensional (A–F) and 3-dimensional (G–I) micro-computed tomography images of the fourth lumbar vertebral body from the control (A, D, G), 1 cigarette (B, E, H), and 2 cigarette (C, F, I) groups.

  • Fig. 3 The characteristics of the microarchitecture of the fourth lumbar vertebral body from the control, 1 cigarette, and 2 cigarette groups (n=8 for each group). Bone volume fraction (A), trabecular thickness (B), number (C) and separation (D). *P<0.05.

  • Fig. 4 The biochemical characteristics of bone turnover in the control, 1 cigarette, and 2 cigarette groups (n=8 for each group). CTX, C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen. OC, osteocalcin. *P<0.05.


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