J Korean Foot Ankle Soc.  2018 Jun;22(2):49-54. 10.14193/jkfas.2018.22.2.49.

Diagnosis and Comorbidity of Chronic Ankle Instability

  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University School of Medicine, Busan, Korea. class3726@hanmail.net
  • 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Busan Medical Center, Busan, Korea.


Ankle sprains are among the most common injuries sustained during athletic activities and daily life. Acute ankle sprain is usually managed conservatively with functional rehabilitation but the failure of conservative treatment leads to the development of chronic ankle instability. The development of repetitive ankle sprains and persistent symptoms after injury has been termed chronic ankle instability. Acute ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability require a careful evaluation to detect other comorbidities, such as subtalar instability, osteochondral defect, peroneal tendinopathy, tarsal coalition, os trigonum, flexor hallucis longus tendinitis, calcaneus anterior process fracture, and neural injuries. For the successful treatment of acute ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability, the treatment of comorbidity lesions should be performed first.


Ankle; Chronic ankle instability; Diagnosis; Comorbidity

MeSH Terms

Ankle Injuries


  • Figure 1 (A, B) Partial tear of anterior talofibular (ATFL): diffuse internal hypoechoic area with swelling (arrows). (C, D) Complete tear of ATFL: hypoechoic gap in ligament (hematoma), wavy free ends (arrows). LM: lateral malleolus.

  • Figure 2 (A) Normal anterior talofibular (ATFL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 axial view (arrow). (B) Torn ATFL MRI T2 axial view (arrow).

  • Figure 3 (A) Anterior drawer test. (B) Suction sign (arrow).

  • Figure 4 Ankle varus stress view (A, C) and anterior drawer test (B, D) were performed with Telos device at 20 N.


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