Clin Endosc.  2017 Nov;50(6):546-551. 10.5946/ce.2017.167.

Therapy of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Fine Needle Intervention including Ethanol and Radiofrequency Ablation

  • 1Department of Gastroenterology, Asian Institute of Gastroenterology, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are increasingly being detected, though usually as incidental findings. Majority of the PNETs are non-functional and surgical resection is the standard of care for most of them. However, in patients with small PNETs localized within the pancreas, who are unfit or unwilling for surgery, alternate methods of treatment are needed. Direct methods of ablation of PNETs, using either ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation (RFA), are emerging as effective methods. The limited literature available as case reports or case series on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided local ablation using either ethanol or RFA has demonstrated safety and efficacy along with short- to medium-term sustained relief. Long-term benefits with these local ablative therapies are awaited. Comparative studies are needed to show which of these two competing technologies is superior. Finally, comparative trials of EUS-guided ablation with surgical resection in terms of efficacy and safety will ensure their place in the management algorithm.


Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor; Endoscopic ultrasound; Radiofrequency ablation; Tumor ablation; Ethanol
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