Korean J Parasitol.  2017 Oct;55(5):513-521. 10.3347/kjp.2017.55.5.513.

High Frequency of Enteric Protozoan, Viral, and Bacterial Potential Pathogens in Community-Acquired Acute Diarrheal Episodes: Evidence Based on Results of Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel Assay

  • 1Medical Laboratory Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia. yousryhawash@gmail.com
  • 2Clinical and Molecular Parasitology Department, National Liver Institute (NLI), Menoufia University, Shebin Al Koom, Menoufia, Egypt.
  • 3Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.


Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9.8% mixed). Rotavirus (19.6%), Giardia duodenalis (16.5%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (8.5%) were the mostly detected pathogens. Adenovirus 40/41 (4.2%), Salmonella (3%), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (3%), and Entamoeba histolytica (2.4%) were also detected. Norovirus GI/II, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Clostridium difficile toxin A/B were not detected in any patients. All pathogens were involved in coinfections except E. histolytica. Giardia (5.5%) and rotavirus (3%) were the most commonly detected in co-infections. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (2.4%), Campylobacter spp. (2.4%), E. coli 0157 (1.8%), and Shigella spp. (1.2%) were detected in patients only as co-infections. Infections were more in children 0–4 years, less in adults < 40 years, and least >40 years, with statistically significant differences in risk across age groups observed with rotavirus (P < 0.001), Giardia (P=0.006), and Cryptosporidium (P=0.036) infections. Lastly, infections were not significantly more in the spring. This report demonstrates the high burden of various enteropathogens in the setting. Further studies are needed to define the impact of these findings on the clinical course of the disease.


Giardia duodenalis; Entamoeba histolytica; Cryptosporidium; diarrhea; enteropathogen; co-infection; mono-infection; xTAGâ„¢ GPP
Full Text Links
  • KJP
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Copyright © 2020 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr