Nutr Res Pract.  2017 Dec;11(6):445-451. 10.4162/nrp.2017.11.6.445.

Kimchi attenuates fatty streak formation in the aorta of low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kimchi Research Institute, Pusan National University, 2, Busandaehak-ro 63 beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Korea. yosong@pusan.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Tongmyong University, Busan 48520, Korea.
  • 3Department of Medicinal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Eumseong 55365, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is positively associated with atherosclerosis via elevating macrophage cell death and plaque formation, in which oxidative stress plays a pivotal role. Antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-atherogenic effects of kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable, have been established, wherein capsaicin, ascorbic acid, quercetin, 3-(4'-hydroxyl-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid, and lactic acids were identified. In this study, mechanisms of action of kimchi methanol extracts (KME) on fatty streak formation via suppression of ER stress and apoptosis in aorta were examined in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Mice fed a high cholesterol diet with an oral administration of KME (KME group, 200 mg·kg-bw⁻¹·day⁻¹) or distilled water (control group) for 8 weeks (n = 20 for group). Plasma lipid and oxidative stress levels were evaluated. Protein expression was measured by western blot assay. Fatty streak lesion size and the degree of apoptosis were examined in the aorta.
RESULTS
Compared to the control group, in the KME group, plasma lipids levels were decreased and oxidative stress was alleviated (P < 0.05). Protein expression levels of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2-mediated antioxidants in aorta were increased whereas those for ER stress markers, glucose regulated protein 78, phospho-protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase, phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit α, X-box binding protein 1, and C/EBP homologous protein were decreased in the KME group (P < 0.05). Moreover, apoptosis was suppressed via downregulation of phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase, bcl-2-associated X protein, caspases-9, and -3 with a concomitant upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 (P < 0.05). Fatty streak lesion size was reduced and the degree of apoptosis was less severe in the KME group (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, antioxidant activity of KME might prevent fatty streak formation through, in part, inhibition of ER stress and apoptosis in aortic sinus where macrophages are harbored.

Keyword

Endoplasmic reticulum stress; apoptosis; antioxidants; atherosclerosis; hypercholesteremia

MeSH Terms

Administration, Oral
Animals
Antioxidants
Aorta*
Apoptosis*
Ascorbic Acid
Atherosclerosis
bcl-2-Associated X Protein
Blotting, Western
Capsaicin
Carrier Proteins
Cell Death
Cholesterol
Diet
Down-Regulation
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress*
Endoplasmic Reticulum*
Glucose
Hypercholesterolemia
Lactic Acid
Lipoproteins*
Lymphoma, B-Cell
Macrophages
Methanol
Mice
Mice, Knockout*
Oxidative Stress
Phosphotransferases
Plasma
Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2
Quercetin
Receptors, Lipoprotein*
Sinus of Valsalva
Up-Regulation
Vegetables
Water
Antioxidants
Ascorbic Acid
Capsaicin
Carrier Proteins
Cholesterol
Glucose
Lactic Acid
Lipoproteins
Methanol
Phosphotransferases
Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2
Quercetin
Receptors, Lipoprotein
Water
bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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