Osteoporos Sarcopenia.  2017 Sep;3(3):138-148. 10.1016/j.afos.2017.08.097.

Risk factors and epidemiological profile of hip fractures in Indian population: A case-control study

Affiliations
  • 1Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. riksag@gmail.com
  • 2NMC Specialty Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
This analytic retrospective case-control study was designed to analyze risk factors and the epidemiological profile of hip fractures among the Indian population with special importance to the mechanism of injuries.
METHODS
Patients of hip fractures (n = 41) and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 41) were interviewed by a questionnaire regarding the occurrence of the fracture, past history of diseases and long-term medication usage, past and physical activity, supplements, smoking, and alcohol intake. The data were tabulated using descriptive statistics and logistic regression was used to determine significant risk factors.
RESULTS
Age group 60-69 was found to be most affected by hip fractures, though an early onset of fractures was noted in males. Falls due to slipping indoors from standing position was found very commonly. However, an increasing trend of falls was noted from lying down position in the older age groups which was more common during the morning and night hours. Logistic regression analysis for the detection of risk factors was applied to the various variables in the questionnaire. Active status in the past was inversely related (odds ratio [OR], 0.33; P < 0.05) to fracture risk while alternative medication usage in the past 1 year (OR, 4.086; P < 0.05) and significant alcohol consumption were directly associated with fracture risk (OR, 5.484; P < 0.05). A potential inverse relation of use of calcium supplements in the past 3 months and fracture risk (OR, 0.872) was seen, although this was not significant. A potential positive relation of smoking with hip fractures was also seen, but not found significant (OR, 2.204).
CONCLUSIONS
Hip fractures in the elderly population are on a rising trend especially in the Indian subcontinent due to a number of factors both hereditary and acquired. Simple measures like routine usage of bedside railing, wall-side railings at an appropriate height, high friction tiles inside rooms and washrooms, and adequate lighting indoors can play a significant role in reducing falls and hip fractures among the elderly.

Keyword

Hip fracture; Osteoporosis; Risk factors; Physical activity scoring

MeSH Terms

Accidental Falls
Aged
Alcohol Drinking
Calcium
Case-Control Studies*
Deception
Friction
Healthy Volunteers
Hip Fractures*
Hip*
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Motor Activity
Osteoporosis
Posture
Retrospective Studies
Risk Factors*
Smoke
Smoking
Calcium
Smoke
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