Ultrasonography.  2017 Oct;36(4):292-299. 10.14366/usg.17023.

Updated guidelines on the preoperative staging of thyroid cancer

  • 1Department of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea. mamrad@knu.ac.kr


Recent studies have provided prognostic information and recommendations for staging thyroid cancers that have changed the staging and management guidelines for the disease. Consequently, minimal extrathyroidal extension (ETE) was removed from the T3 stage classification in the eighth edition of the TNM staging system by the American Joint Committee on Cancer. New T categories have been subsequently added, including T3a, defined as a tumor >4 cm in its greatest dimension, limited to the thyroid gland, and T3b, defined as a tumor of any size with gross ETE invading only the strap muscles. In this article, the author reviews the changes in the TNM staging system for thyroid cancer, with an emphasis on ultrasonography in preoperative staging.


Thyroid neoplasms; Neoplasm staging; Ultrasonography
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