Diabetes Metab J.  2017 Aug;41(4):229-250. 10.4093/dmj.2017.41.4.229.

Unusual Suspects in the Development of Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance: NK cells, iNKT cells, and ILCs

Affiliations
  • 1The Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. jongsoon.lee@joslin.harvard.edu

Abstract

The notion that obesity-induced inflammation mediates the development of insulin resistance in animal models and humans has been gaining strong support. It has also been shown that immune cells in local tissues, in particular in visceral adipose tissue, play a major role in the regulation of obesity-induced inflammation. Specifically, obesity increases the numbers and activation of proinflammatory immune cells, including M1 macrophages, neutrophils, Th1 CD4 T cells, and CD8 T cells, while simultaneously suppressing anti-inflammatory cells such as M2 macrophages, CD4 regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, and eosinophils. Recently, however, new cell types have been shown to participate in the development of obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Some of these cell types also appear to regulate obesity. These cells are natural killer (NK) cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are closely related, and invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. It should be noted that, although iNKT cells resemble NK cells in name, they are actually a completely different cell type in terms of their development and functions in immunity and metabolism. In this review, we will focus on the roles that these relatively new players in the metabolism field play in obesity-induced insulin resistance and the regulation of obesity.

Keyword

Diabetes mellitus, type 2; Innate lymphoid cells; Insulin resistance; Killer cells, natural; Natural killer T-cells; Obesity
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