Imaging Sci Dent.  2017 Sep;47(3):181-187. 10.5624/isd.2017.47.3.181.

Analysis of the root position of the maxillary incisors in the alveolar bone using cone-beam computed tomography

  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.
  • 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.


The purpose of this study was to measure the buccal bone thickness and angulation of the maxillary incisors and to analyze the correlation between these parameters and the root position in the alveolar bone using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
CBCT images of 398 maxillary central and lateral incisors from 199 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The root position in the alveolar bone was classified as buccal, middle, or palatal, and the buccal type was further classified into subtypes I, II, and III. In addition, the buccolingual inclination of the tooth and buccal bone thickness were evaluated.
A majority of the maxillary incisors were positioned more buccally within the alveolar bone, and only 2 lateral incisors (0.5%) were positioned more palatally. The angulation of buccal subtype III was the greatest and that of the middle type was the lowest. Most of the maxillary incisors exhibited a thin facial bone wall, and the lateral incisors had a significantly thinner buccal bone than the central incisors. The buccal bone of buccal subtypes II and III was significantly thinner than that of buccal subtype I.
A majority of the maxillary incisor roots were positioned close to the buccal cortical plate and had a thin buccal bone wall. Significant relationships were observed between the root position in the alveolar bone, the angulation of the tooth in the alveolar bone, and buccal bone thickness. CBCT analyses of the buccal bone and sagittal root position are recommended for the selection of the appropriate treatment approach.


Maxilla; Incisor; Tooth Root; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography
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